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  The Effect of Two Adhesive Agents on Shear Bond strength Between Fresh Dental Amalgam and Resin Composite

*Aveen K. Ibraheem, **Salam D. Alqaysi
* Sulaimani Directorate of Health, Sulaimani Iraq.
** Department of Conservative, College of Dentistry, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq.


Objective: Salivary To assess and compare the results on the bond strength of two adhesive agents that bond fresh amalgam to two types of composite restorations, and to check the mode of bond failure. 

Methods: Sixty standardized circular cavities were prepared in a block of polymethyl methacrylate with standardized dimensions. Fresh amalgam was condensed to fill the cavity, then a gelatin mold with standardized dimensions was placed over the fresh amalgam, and the composite resin was bonded to the amalgam. Samples were assigned into three main groups, each containing (20) samples. G1: Amalgam bonded to composite without adhesive agent, G2: Amalgam bonded to composite by single bond universal adhesive, G3: Amalgam bonded to composite by scotch bond MPP, and each group was divided into two subgroups of (n=10) (Nanofill and Nanohybrid composite) to measure shear bond strength, which was followed by evaluation of debonding in all samples under a stereomicroscope to assess the mode of failure. 

Results: The results showed that G3 has higher shear bond strength than G1 and G2, and this is statistically significant at (p=0.001,p=0.005) respectively, while G1 has the lowest shear bond strength and a statistically non-significant difference from G2 at (p=0.539). It was also found that the type of composite resin has no effect on bond strength and statistically no significant difference was found for any of the sub-groups. Following debonding of all the samples, they were examined under a stereomicroscope, and the adhesive failure present was about (%65), and mixed failure present about (%35), while cohesive failure was (%0).

Conclusions: Highest bond strength was found with Scotch bond multi-purpose plus (SBMPP) agent compared to other groups. The strength of the fresh amalgam bonding to the composite resin without an adhesive agent was low. The bond strength with single bond universal adhesive was lower than with the SBMPP system.

 A Comparative Evaluation of Internal 
Adaptation and Marginal Fitness of Two 
Zirconium Design Fabricated by CAD/CAM

*Loura S. Marqus, **Nabeel S. Martani
* MSc student, Hawler Medical University, College of Dentistry, Erbil, Iraq.
** Department of Conservative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.


Objective: Full anatomic zirconia crowns had been launched to overcome the problems associated with veneering porcelain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal and marginal adaptation of CAD/CAM milled zirconia core to full anatomic zirconia crown.  

Methods: The mandibular right first molar of a dentaform model was prepared for the full ceramic crown with deep shoulder finish line. The model was scanned using intra-oral scanner to produce ten full anatomic zirconia crowns and ten zirconia cores. The internal and marginal adaptations (that represents the cement analog) were evaluated using the replica technique with the aid of a stereomicroscope.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the internal and marginal adaptation of core and full anatomic zirconia crown, while a significant difference exists between them at the occlusal point that was greater in full anatomic crown. Both groups revealed the mean gap width of 146.718 which is significant when compared to the standard value.

Conclusions: Both zirconia core and crown revealed comparable results of marginal and internal adaptation after sintering without any effect of bulk thickness. The obtained results were greater than the acceptable range.

 Prevalence of Orofacial Manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis in Patients Admitted Hospital in Sulaymaniyah – Iraq

*Shanaz M. Gaphor, **Zana A. Muhammad, ***Saman AR. Muhammad

*Professor of Oral Medicine, Program Director at Kurdistan Board of Medical Specialties (KBMS), Sulaimani, Iraq.
**Consultant Neurologist, College of Medicine, Head of Neurology Dept- University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq.
***Board Candidate of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine at KBMS, Sulaimani, Iraq.


Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a confirmed autoimmune disease that begins most commonly in young adult years with pathological involvement of many areas of the central nervous system (CNS). This pathology reflects an abnormality in the orofacial area; this study intends to elaborate manifestations at the orofacial area.

Methods: This cross-sectional study that was done in Shar hospital in Sulaimanyah-Iraq, which included one hundred patients previously diagnosed with multiple sclerosis who were interviewed regarding manifestations of multiple sclerosis. Data collection resulted from an application of a specially designed questionnaire, data entered and analysis by (SPSS software 24thedition). Chi-square test was used for analyzing variables.

Results: Females were predominant 68%. At the time of diagnosis 86% of patients were below the age of 40 years. The predominant symptom was eye involvement (50%) with no sex  difference(P=0.73), but age-dependent(p=0.04). Other manifestations were numbness of tongue (46%), numbness of face (40%), facial palsy(25%), dysphagia (12%), they were no statistically significant. No patients reported trigeminal neuralgia at the beginning of the disease.

Conclusions: Based on this study dentists and physicians could participate in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis by doing a proper referral.