All Issues‎ > ‎

Issue template

1- Clinical analysis of salivary gland tumors and their treatment methods: An experience in treatment of 154 cases
     Qais H. Mussa

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment plan methods used in the treatment of different type & site of salivary gland tumors.
Materials and Methods: This study represents the experience of author in surgical treatment of 154 patients who were admitted in the clinic of maxillofacial surgery in the Babylon teaching hospital during the period May 2004- October 2010 for surgical treatment of salivary gland tumors. The clinical finding; distribution of patients according to the histology & the site of origin is summarised. Analysis of different types of surgical procedures that used with others possible treatment & recurrent rate were done.
Result: There were 82 females (53.2%) & 72 (46.8%) males. The average age of patients was 48.5 years. Parotid gland tumors represent 55.2% (85 patients), submandibular gland 20.7% (32 patients) & minor salivary glands 24% (37 patients). Malignant tumors represent 42.2%, mostly in submandibular & minor salivary glands while 57.7% were benign mostly in the parotid gland.
Conclusions: Early diagnosis correlated with careful treatment plan selection depends on histopathology, staging and type of tumor leads to good prognosis of salivary gland tumors. When possible a conservative resection of the malignant tumor is recommended.

Full Article - PDF

2- Immunohistochemical expression of P-cadherin and cortactin in oral squamous cell carcinomas
      Dena N. Mohammad, Balkees T. Garib, Hassanain H. Khudeir & Ban A Abdul–Majeed

Abstract

Objectives: to assess the expression and pattern distribution of P-cadherin and cortactin in OSCC, and to relate such expression to the histopathological grading.
Materials and Methods: An immunohistochemical staining for P-cadherin and cortactin was performed on paraffin blocks of 40 oral squamous cell carcinoma and five normal mucosa. Fisher's exact test and Spearman's rank-order correlation were applied for analysis. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: P-cadherin was either aberrantly cytoplasmic re-localized or lost in 45% of cases. 58.6% of positive cases were in grade I. Focal heterogeneous pattern was the commonest pattern (27.5%) and related to the degree of cell differentiation. The expression percentage was reported mainly in score 1 and 2 with no differences among histopathological grades (P=0.778). On the other hand, 70% of oral SCC had cytoplasmic cortactin expression. The majority of cases (85.7%) expressed diffuse pattern including all positive grade II and III cases. Nevertheless, statistical analysis did not reach a significant level (P= 0.722). Furthermore, no significant correlation was found between P-cadherin and cortactin expression.
Conclusion: Oral SCC had P-cadherin under-expression (focal) and cortactin over-expression (diffuse). The P-cadherin pattern distribution rather than expression percentage was related to the degree of cell differentiation. The expressions of these molecules were unrelated to each other.
Full Article - PDF

3- Prevalence of missing permanent teeth in 9-14 years dental patients in Sulaimani city - Radiographic study
     Ranj Adil Jalal

Abstract

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of missing permanent teeth in a sample of dental patients.
Materials and Methods: A total of 1133 digital OPG images, for students aged between 9-14 years, were retrieved from archived records. All the digital images were evaluated on the computer screen for determining the number, type and site of missing teeth in relation to age and sex.
Results: The prevalence of hypodontia was 14.1% (6% for males, 8.1% for females) with no sex variation. Most cases (51.28%) with hypodontia had only one missing tooth (21.79% for males, 29.49% for females). The most commonly missing teeth were the maxillary lateral incisors (37.8%), followed by the mandibular second premolars (34.1%).
Conclusion: High prevalence of missing teeth could be reported depending on OPG alone. Single tooth loss, maxillary jaw, and left side were the common features of missing permanent teeth in teenagers of our sample.
Full Article - PDF

4- Temporomandibular joint disorders among a group of patients attending the Oral Diagnosis Clinic of the School of Dentistry at University of
     Sulaimani, Iraq
      Shokhan Ahmad Hussein, Arass Jalal Noori & Faiq Muhammad Amen

Abstract

Objectives: The objectives of the present study was to find the number of subjects and distribution, etiology and some associated factors of TMJ problems of patients attending the Oral Diagnosis Clinic at the School of Dentistry/ University of Sulaimani.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study consists of available case-sheet records for patients attended the clinic of Oral Diagnosis of the School of Dentistry at the University of Sulaimani within one academic year (2013-2014) and consisted of 1325 patients aged from 10-79 years; 650 males (49.05%) and 675 females (50.94%).
Results: Out of 53 (0.04%) patients who complained of TMJ problems, 30 patients were males (56.6%) and 23 patients were females (43.4%). The highest numbers of patients seen were from the younger age groups (20-30 years; n= 37, 69.8%). The pain was the most prevalent reported symptom followed by clicking in the joints and more than half of patients reported emotional stress as a causative factor. About one-third of the patients reported that their TMJ problems have affected their functional activities, and also only one-third of the patients reported ear symptoms.
Conclusions: TMD patients require a special kind of attention due the multifactorial nature of the condition and the wide range of clinical manifestations that may be associated with the condition. Furthermore, the impact of the condition on the general health and the quality of life are clearly evident and should not be overlooked by any clinician who encounters such patients.
Full Article - PDF

5- Subgingival application of 25% metronidazole gel, 1% chlorhexidine gel as adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing in treatment of 
     chronic periodontitis
      Shokhan Abdullah Karim, Basima Ghafury Ali & Kamal Ahmed Saeed

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effect of subgingival application of 25% metronidazole gel or 1% chlorhexidine gel as an adjunctive to scaling and root planing over a root planing alone.
Materials and Methods: Ten adults (6 females and 4 males) with an age range of (30-60) years, each with at least three non-adjacent periodontally involved teeth with a probing pocket depth of ≥ 5mm and bleeding on probing participated in this randomized, split mouth, clinical study. A total of (394) sites were included in the study, the selected sites in each patient were divided into: Group 1 (root planing plus 25% metronidazole gel), Group 2 (root planing plus 1% chlorhexidine gel) and Group 3 (root planing alone).Clinical evaluation included: plaque index PLI (Silness and Loe, 1964), gingival index GI (Loe and Silness, 1963), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL).
Results: All groups showed a fluctuated mean PLI scores between visits and a gradual reduction of GI, BOP, PPD and CAL scores for all groups during subsequent visits. Intergroup comparisons for PLI, BOP, PPD and CAL parameters showed no significance difference between the 3 groups, whereas GI showed a significant difference between groups except at week 2 only; this significance observed when group 1 compared with group 3.
Conclusions: The 3 treatment modalities similarly showed improvement in almost all clinical parameters applied in this study. Also, there was no significance difference between the application of metronidazole gel and chlorhexidine gel on improvement of clinical periodontal parameters.
Full Article - PDF

6- Prevalence, Extension and Severity of the Gingival Recession in an Adult Population Sample of Sulaimani city– Iraq
     Aram M. Hamed, Faredoon M. Zardawi & Shokhan A. Karim

Abstract

Objectives: to determine the prevalence, severity and extension of gingival recession in an adult population in Sulaimani city – Iraq.
Materials and Methods: 627 subjects, males and females were examined at Shorsh teaching hospital - dental center in Sulaimani city to determine the prevalence, severity and extension of gingival recession. The sample was divided into four age groups, group 1 (20 to 29 years) 232 patients, group 2 (30 to 39 years) 223 patients, group 3 (40 to 49 years) 128 patients and group 4 (above 50 years) 44 patients. A calibrated periodontal probe marked up to 15 mm was employed for measuring the amount of gingival recession from cementoenamel junction to the gingival margin on four surfaces of each tooth - mesial, buccal, distal and lingual. Miller’s classification was used to evaluate the severity of the recession.
Results: In this study a total of 249 subjects out of 627 recorded gingival recession. Whereas, 1453 teeth out of 6776 adding up to 2340 sites displayed (≥1 mm) gingival recession. Furthermore, the majority of older age group (≥ 50 years) sample revealed gingival recession (93.2%). Statistically gingival recession among male subjects were non-significantly higher than female subjects 46% against 34.5% respectively, whereas females recorded higher number of teeth and sites affected by gingival recession than males (823 teeth against 630 teeth and 1277 sites against 1063 sites). According to Miller’s classification, class one recession was most prevalent (55%) followed by class III (38.2%). According to age, Class I recessions decreased as age increased, however, Class III and Class IV recessions showed an increasing status as age increased. According to tooth type, mandibular central and lateral incisors showed the highest percentages of gingival recession (23.6% and 19.4%) respectively.
Conclusion: Prevalence of the gingival recession was high among the population examined in this study with a predilection for males. Gingival recession was more prevalent in higher age groups. Furthermore, mandibular central and lateral incisors were the most frequent teeth revealing recession among the total dentition.
Full Article - PDF

7- Prevalence of endodontically treated teeth in Sulaimani adult population
     Ranjdar Mahmood Talabani, Dler Ali Khursheed & Bamo Namiq Abdulkareem

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of root filled teeth in a Sulaimani adult population.
Material and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 1015 patients were examined for the presence of endodontically treated teeth between April 2009 and October 2014. Two independent examiners discussed interpretation criteria and classified specimens according to the following data: presence of root canal treatment, which was defined as partially or completely filled canal space, regardless of whether filling ended at the radiographic apex or not; presence of intracanal post; and associated apical periodontitis.
Results: Chi-square test and descriptive analysis were used for statistical analyses. Significance level was set at p<0.05. Of 24218 teeth evaluated, 4534 (18.7 %) were treated endodontically. Endodontic treatment was most frequent in mandibular molars, whereas mandibular incisors showed the lowest. Most endodontically treated teeth were found in people aged 18-29 years old. Females (54.29%) showed a higher prevalence of teeth with root fillings than males.
Conclusions: The present study found a higher prevalence of endodontically treated teeth in lower molars; females had more endodontically treated teeth than males.
Full Article - PDF

8- Study the effect of different shades and thickness on surface hardness of light cure composite restoration (A Comparative In Vitro Study) 
      Bassam Afram Hanna, Miwan Salahaldeen & Tavga Mustafa

Abstract

Objectives: Study performed to determined the effect of cavity depth & shade of composite on surface microhardness of the restoration.
Materials and Methods: Eighty cylindrical specimens were prepared, (Group R) 40 specimens of Nano filled composanceram, divided into four subgroups(R1,2.5 mm,A1shade / R2, 2.5mm, C2 shade / R3,4.5mm, A1shade / R4, 4.5mm, C2shade). And (Group E) 40specimens of Micro hybrid, 3G SDI, divided into four subgroups as the same as first group. After curing with visible light cure 230v/50Hz, output 470 nm, measuring the Vicker Hardness number of top and bottom surface of each specimen, then analyzed by Student t-test.
Results: Showed highly significant in difference in relation between top and bottom surfaces for all subgroups,and also there was highly significant indifference in relation to different types of composite, while there was non-significant indifference in relation to difference in shade in case of thin thickness, while it was significant in difference in case of thick thickness of specimens.
Conclusions: In case of deep cavity it wise to use thinner composite increments to improve polymerization and should avoid thicker increment especially in a dark shade of composite.
Full Article - PDF

9- Pattern, incidence and causes of partial edentulism in a group of patients attending dental school of Sulaimani university
      Kaml Kareem Mohammed & Dana Mustafa Abdullah

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of partial edentulism and its relationship with age, gender and etiological factors in group of patients attending prosthodontic department, School of dentistry, University of Sulaimani-Iraq.
Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 274 patients attending prosthodontic department, the partial edentulism was recorded by visual examination using Kennedy’s Classification. The source of data was patient’s case sheets and the patients were informed that the recorded informations were required for a research purpose and their consent and agreements were taken verbally. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and presented as a simple frequency table and figures.
Results: The study results showed that 170 of the patients were female (62.1%) and 104 of the patient were male (37.9%). The most frequently occurred Kennedy class was Kennedy Class I (39.2%) followed by Kennedy Class III and II (31.9%), (27.6%) respectively and the least frequent was Kennedy Class IV (1.3%). The highest percentage of Kennedy class I arch was seen in the mandible (49.4%), while the most frequently seen Kennedy class in the maxilla was class III arch (40.9%), with an increase in age, there is an increase in class I and class II dental arches and a decrease in class III arch both in maxilla and in mandible. Finally, the results revealed that the most frequent reason of exodontias stand out to be caries in both male and female (81.7%), (85.2%) respectively.
Conclusions: It was concluded that the most common pattern of partial edentulism in examined sample was found to be class I in mandible then class III in maxilla and class IV being the least common in both jaws. The mandibular arches are more partially edentulous than maxillary arches and female patients more demanding Prosthodontic treatments than male patients. With an increase in age there is a transition of bounded saddle to free end saddles and the principle cause of tooth loss was dental caries.
Full Article - PDF

10- The prevalence of lower alveolar flat ridge among completely edentulous patients in Sulaimani
      Cheman A.  AL-Jmoor, Faten Khalid Ali Al-Kadi & Jwan F. Abdulkareem

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of lower flat ridge among a sample of completely edentulous patients, and to correlate it with age, gender, the presence or absence of a previous denture and the period of complete edentulism.
Materials and Methods: 297 patients with lower flat ridge were included in the study. A questionnaire was used to record the data of each patient which include; the gender, the age of the patient, the presence or the absence of a previous denture, and the date of the last tooth extraction (the period of complete edentulism). The patients were informed that the recorded information was required for a research purpose, and it will be used in a survey, and their consents and agreements were taken verbally. All the collected data were checked and assessed by a prosthodontic specialist. The patients age were divided into four groups; (41-50 years), (51-60 years), (61-70 years), (more than 71 years). The period of complete edentulism were divided into two groups; (up to 5 years), and (more than 5 years). The data were correlated and descriptive statistic of tables, numbers and percentages along with Chi-Square, were used to analyze the data.
Results: The results of the study showed that; 150 (50.505%) of the patients were males and 147 (49.494%) of the patients were females. The majority of the patients were from the age group (61-70) and (51-60) years in male and female respectively. No significant differences were found between gender and age group (P>0.05). The occurrence of the lower flat ridge was significantly higher in patients with previous dentures 184(61.952%) than those without dentures 113(38.047%) in both genders (P< 0.05). Finally, the results revealed that patients who were completely edentulous for up to five years had significantly higher numbers of lower flat ridge 178(59.932%) comparing to those who were completely edentulous for more than five years 119(40.067%).
Conclusions: The presence of a previous denture, the longevity period of complete edentulism, the age, and the gender of the patient has an effect on the resorption of the lower residual ridge, and on the height of the lower residual ridge.
Full Article - PDF

11- The prevalence of enamel white spot lesions before and after fixed orthodontic treatment among patients attending Shorish Dental Center
      Khoshy Smko Fatehulla, Omed Salar Hamasaeed & Darwn Saeed Abdulateef

Abstract

Objectives: This study was done to determine the prevalence of WSLs among orthodontic patients visiting Shorish Dental Center in Sulaimani City during 4 months (1st June 2013- 30 sep 2013) requiring fixed orthodontic treatment.
Materials and Methods: Six hundred and seventy patients (223control and 447study groups) who attended orthodontic department of Shorish Dental Center during 4 months were included in this study. The presence of white spot lesions was determined by visual examination in two groups of patients. The study group consisted of patients who did wear fixed orthodontic appliance, and the control group consisted of patients who didn’t having their braces placed on their teeth.
Results: Out of 477 orthodontic patients, 148 cases presents WSL, and their prevalence was equal to (31%). Conclusion: The development of white spot lesion during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance was not a significant clinical problem and its prevalence didn’t affect by the age and the gender of the patients, suggesting that any preventive therapy provided appeared to be effective.
Conclusions: Fixed orthodontic appliance was not a critical factor that contributed to the development of WSL. The age and the gender of the patient didn’t play a role in the prevalence of the WSLs.
Full Article - PDF