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Sulaimani Dental Journal: Vol 1 Issue 1: June, 2014.

1- The use of maxillary first molar as forensic aid in racial and sexual dimorphism of Kurdish populaton in Sulaimani city
     
Azhar Ghanim Ahmed

Abstract

Objectives: To find out the utility of using permanent maxillary first molar as a forensic tool for sex determination,   and to compare tooth size for both side in the same sex in Kurdish people.
Materials and methods: The study sample comprised 120 casts of Kurdish peoples (67 females and 53 males) from Sulaimani city - Iraq, with age ranging from 13-33 years. The bucco-lingual (B-L) and mesio-distal (M-D) linear measurements of the maxillary first molars were calculated using digital vernier calipers. Percentage of sexual dimorphism was calculated.
Results: The mean values of B-L and M-D parameters were greater in males than females and greater on right side compared to with left side. The mean values of B-L parameters showed statistically significant differences between males and females with p ˂0.05.The differences in B-L and M-D parameters between the right and the left side were statistically significant in males. Sexual dimorphism amounted to 3.48%, 2.83% for the right and left bucco-lingual diameter respectively as compared to 1%, 0.91 % for right and left mesio-distal diameters of the maxillary first molars respectively.
Conclusion: The result of the study showed that the bucco-lingual diameters of permanent maxillary first molars exhibiting significant sexual dimorphism in Kurdish sample and can be used as adjunct in sex determination.

2- Prevalence of oral mucosal changes among 6- 13-year old children in Sulaimani city, Iraq
      Shokhan Ahmad Hussein & Arass Jalal Noori

Abstract

Objectives: Understanding the distribution, etiology and epidemiology of oral mucosal changes is essential for preventive and treatment planning. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of oral mucosal lesions and normal variations among 6- to 13-year old children in Sulaimani city, north of Iraq.
Method: A cross-sectional survey was carried out on primary school students in Sulaimani city. A total of 5113 Kurdish children was examined; 2757 (53.92%) were males and 2356 (46.08%) were females, enrolled in 20 primary public schools. Any oral mucosal changes observed at the time of examination were recorded.
Results: The prevalence of oral mucosal changes was found to be 12.87% (658 children): 12.91% (356) males and 12.82% (302) females, with no statistically significant gender variations (P>0.05). Twelve different oral mucosal changes/lesions were diagnosed and the most common were herpes labialis (3.2%), aphthous ulcers (2.25%), linea alba (1.72%), angular cheilitis (1.7%), traumatic ulcers (1.58%) and geographical tongue (1.33%). No statistically significant association was found between different types of lesions and gender (P>0.05). The lips were found to be the most common affected site (27.36%) followed by buccal mucosa (23.86%), tongue (18.54%), labial mucosa (14.13%), and the lip commissures (13.22%).
Conclusion: The present study represents the first cross-sectional epidemiological study of the prevalence and distribution of oral mucosal lesions among Kurdish Iraqi children in Sulaimani city providing the baseline data for future relative preventive and health service programs.
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3- Comparison of volume loss of tooth structure between traditional and conservative FPD designs
     Abdulsalam Al-Zahawi, Effrosyni Tsitrou, Richard van Noort

Abstract

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amount of tooth structure that is sacrificed with the conventional preparation of a 3-unit bridge and compare this with a variety of more conservative 3-unit bridge designs.
Materials and methods: Fifty typodont Frasaco teeth were used to prepare five 3-unit FPD preparation designs (25 lower right first premolar teeth and 25 lower right first molar teeth). One conventional full coverage crown retainer, two different innovative partial coverage crown retainer and two different Inlay design retainer. The volume of tooth structure lost was measured for each design and statistically analyzed.
Results: One-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test statistical analysis of the results at (p˂ 0.001), revealed that there was a highly significant effect of the preparation design on the volume loss of tooth structure. Volume tooth structure saved design IV and V was about twice that saved with the partial coverage crown in design II and III.
Conclusion: The amount of tooth structure sacrificed in the proposed conservative FPD designs is significantly less than that calculated for the traditional design.
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4- Assessment of oral hygiene in a sample of orthodontically treated patients using different bracket materials with different motivational techniques in 
     Sulaimani City
      Aras M. Rauf, Tara A. Rashid, Ara O. Fatah, Fadil A. Kareem & Nyaz O. Mohammad

Abstract

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of three different motivational techniques for maintaining good oral hygiene during the long term fixed orthodontic treatment.
Materials and methods: This comparative study was carried in Sulaimani city, on 60 patients with their age ranged from 12-18 years having fixed orthodontic appliances for a period of  18± 6 months were selected and divided randomly according to motivational techniques into three study groups (A, B and C), each group was subsequently  subdivided into 2 subgroups according to the type of bracket material.  The sample was subjected over a period of 6 months to different motivational techniques during the orthodontic treatment. Oral health status was examined and recorded twice using simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The results were statistically analyzed with Statistical Product and Service Solutions software (SPSS, V16).
Results: After motivation and reinforcement, improvement of oral health was observed among the patients. Visual evidence motivational technique (applied for group C) approved to be the most significant effective motivational technique (P≤ 0.001) for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment regardless the type of the bracket material.
Conclusions: Orthodontists should concern about the motivation of the patients undergoing orthodontic treatment keeping sustained oral hygiene throughout the treatment period. This study confirmed that visual evidence motivational technique is the best educational and motivational technique for orthodontic patients that should be carried out before and throughout the treatment. 
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5- Evaluation of microleakage in the gingival margin of class II resin composite restoration when using three placement techniques (An in vitro study)
      Miwan S. Abdul-Rahman

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate and compare the effect of bulk and layering composite filling techniques on the gingival microleakage in class II cavity.
Materials and methods: Standardized 60 class II cavities were prepared in the proximal surfaces of thirty extracted non caries permanent molars and randomly were divided into two main groups A and B each composed of 30 cavities, for group (A) the gingival floor on mesial side was prepared one mm above the CEJ and for group (B) one mm below the CEJ,  then each main group was subdivided into three subgroups (n=10 cavities) according to the composite placement technique: 1) bulk, 2) horizontal, 3)  oblique. The specimens were immersed in a solution of 2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours. The microleakage scores (0 to 3) were obtained from the cervical surface and the cervical microleakage was analyzed with a stereomicroscope.
Results: The gingival dye penetration increased when the gingival floor was below the CEJ. The microleakage is increased with bulk followed by horizontal and oblique.
Conclusion: This study predicts that the oblique layering composite filling technique of class II is betters then the other techniques when the gingival floor is above and below the CEJ.
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6- The prevalence of fracture in acrylic removable dentures in Sulaimani city
     Cheman A. AL-Jmoor

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of fractures in Acrylic Removable Dentures in Sulaimani City.
Patients and methods: A questioner was used to collect the data from two dental laboratories. 264 fracture cases were collected.  The variables evaluated were; the fracture area, the possible cause of fracture, fracture frequency, place of denture construction, the age of the denture, and the type of Removable Denture, Partial or Complete Denture.
Results: The data result showed; The ratio of fracture incidence in complete denture to partial denture fracture was nearly 4:1, the ratio of upper to lower denture was 2:1, the most common fractures was midline fracture 112 (42.424%), followed by the De-Bonding of the artificial teeth 62 (23.484%). Dropping was the main possible cause of fracture 66 (25%), followed by poor occlusion 38 (14. 393%). 128 (48.484%) of the denture fractures was first time fracture, 136 (51.515%) of the dentures had repeated fracture. 112 (42.424%) of the fractured dentures were constructed by a technician like people (Dan Saz), 76 (28.787%) were constructed in dental hospital. 58 (21.969%) of the fractured dentures were constructed 1 years ago or less, 146 (55.303%) of the fractured dentures were more than 3 years old.      
Conclusion: Midline fracture had the highest rate among all the other types of fractures; fracture of upper denture was more than lower dentures. Dropping followed by the De-bonding of the artificial teeth was the most possible cause of fracture. Fracture rate increased among the dentures which were first constructed by a technician like people (Dan Saz).  Fracture frequency increased as the denture age increased, also increased among dentures with repeated fracture.
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7- Prevalence of common white lesions in oral cavity among patients attended School of Dentistry in Sulaimani/ Iraq
     Akeel Saeed Abd-Sada

Abstract

Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of common white lesions in the oral cavity.
Patients & Methods: Examination was done for 500 patients visiting dental school, in Sulaimani city, Kurdistan region-Iraq from different age groups and sexes for presences of white lesions. Examination includes the type, site and size of the lesion in oral cavity. 
Results: The result showed that about 44.2% (221 patients) had one type of white lesions with male predominance. Candidiasis and hyperkeratosis represented the majority of these cases 54.2% and 38% respectively while leukoplakia represented the less finding in this study (3.6%). According to the age group these lesion were founded in above 50 years patients more than the other groups. 
Conclusion: White lesions in oral cavity may be symptomless and can be found by routine oral examination. Early diagnosis may aid in the treatment of these lesions.
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8- Focal epithelial hyperplasia in Yemeni families: Three case reports 
      Salwa M. Al- Shaikhani

Abstract

This is the first time to get the opportunity to report and study three cases from three families with focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) in Yemen. Clinically they presented as focal and/or diffuse papillomatous lesions in the oral mucosa in children. The purpose of this paper is to add information concerning clinical feature, the possible etiologic factors and diagnosis of this disease which is totally unknown to the general Yemeni medical professionals and to raise dentist’s awareness about these rare conditions. 

9- Management of impacted permanent maxillary incisors caused by supernumerary tooth: Case report
      Anwar A. Amin and Zhwan J. Rashid

Abstract

Purpose: Improving patient's esthetic and appearance due to impacted upper right incisors caused by impacted supernumerary tooth by moving them in to their proper position within the dental arch. 
Methods: Surgical exposure and open tooth eruption technique with fixed orthodontic appliance have been used.
Principal findings: Treating impacted maxillary incisors with immediate esthetic improvement.
Conclusion: Impacted maxillary incisors could be treated using surgical exposure and open tooth eruption technique with acceptable gingival contour.
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