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Sulaimani Dental Journal: Vol 1 Issue 2: December, 2014.

1- Molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) among Kurdish children in Sulaimani City, Iraq
     
Arass Jalal Noori & Shokhan Ahmad Hussein

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of molar incisor hypomineralisation among Kurdish children in Sulaimani City, Iraq.
Method: A cross-sectional survey was carried out on primary school students in Sulaimani City. A total of 2346 Kurdish children aged 7 to 9 years old were examined; 1194 (50.9%) males and 1152 (49.1%) females, enrolled in 20 primary public schools. The index teeth were evaluated using the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) criteria for MIH.
Results: The prevalence of MIH was found to be 18.2% where no statistically significant association was found with age or gender (P>0.05). Multiple teeth involvement (13.2%) was more common than a single molar involvement (5.1%). The mean number of the affected index teeth with MIH per affected child was (3.1). Mild defects were present in 64.1% of the affected teeth with demarcated creamy-white opacities were the most common finding (33.3%).
Conclusions: It’s been found that MIH is a prevalent pathology among Kurdish children in Sulaimani City which could result in a large number of children continuously seeking professional dental treatment. Therefore, dental practitioners who deal with child patients could encounter such cases and should be aware of the treatment choices and management protocols for coping with this particular condition.

2- Prevalence of cigarette smoking among Sulaimani University students
      Zhian Salah Ramzi*

Abstract

Objectives: The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and find out the socio-demographic correlates of smoking among Sulaimani University students.
Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October to November 2007 on 2750 students in Sulaimani University. A systematic stratified sampling technique was used. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection on age and gender of students, college, years of study, and age of starting smoking.
Results: Out of 2722 respondents, 302 students were smokers giving a prevalence rate of 11.1%. The prevalence of smokers was significantly (P< 0.001) higher in males than females (19% and 1% respectively). The highest rate of smokers was among the age group 23-26 years in both sexes. About 10% of students started smoking at age less than 12 years, 8.2% at age 12-17 year, 50% at 18-22, and 31.7% at 23-26 years.
Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking was moderate. More than half of students started smoking during their study years in the university. Males and students in third and fourth academic years were more likely to smoke. The results provide baseline data to develop an anti-smoking program to limit smoking in the university.
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3- Priority in selection of treatment methods used for lymphatic malformations affecting maxillofacial region
     Qais H. Mussa

Abstract

Objectives: The purpose of this paper was to discuss and evaluate the treatment plan selection and the outcomes of 82 cases of lymphatic malformation in oral & maxillofacial region.
Materials & methods: The analysis included of 82 cases of lymphatic malformation in oral & maxillofacial region during the period between January 2004 to November 2013 at maxillofacial department in Al-Hilla General Teaching Hospital. The treatment plans selection depend on details patient history, clinical examination & imaging investigations. Different  techniques were used depended on age, extension, site & types of lymphatic malformation. The treatment methods were conservative treatment, surgery, use of sclerosing agents or combinations of them.
Results: Total number of the patients were 82 complains from different types lymphatic malformation, 30 were males constituting 36.5% while 52 were females constituting 63.5% . The youngest patient was 5 days, while the oldest one was 45 years. Forty case treated by sclerotherapy and surgery (48.7%) . Surgery alone as primary treatment done for 27 patients (32.9%) other 10 cases treated by sclerotherapy alone   ( 12.1%) & 5 cases ( 6% )  only needs observation.
Conclusions: Careful treatment plan selection depends on age, extension, type of lesion & experience of surgeon associated with good prognosis. Conservative resection was the most effective method in treatment of lymphatic malformation.
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4- Prevalence of orofacial changes in patients with β-thalassemia major in Karbala City, Iraq
      Muhanned Salah Abulsattar & Ali Mihsen Al-Yassiri

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate findings of oral abnormalities or changes in these patients, and compare it to healthy control subjects.  
Materials and Methods: Patients were selected from Thalassemia Center of Pediatric of Al Hussaini Teaching Hospital in Holy-Karbala during the period from March to September 2013. Forty (40) subjects were incorporated in this study. All these patients with age range (4-15) years, (22 males, and 18 females). All these patients were without any other systemic diseases. 
Results: The prevalence of orofacial complications in β-thalassemia major patients was: prominent maxilla (85%), bad oder (80%), oral ulcers (50%), angular stomatitis (40%), candidal infection (35%), changes in oral mucosa (30%), xerostomia (15%), and the last one was enlargements of salivary glands (zero).
Conclusions: Knowing the prevalence of complication can help the dentists to do properly for these patients to solve their problems and improve knowledge of the parents about their children's dental health.

5- Assessment of calcium ions diffusion and pH measurements of three intracanal medicaments through dentinal tubules (in vitro comparative study)
      Chrakhan A-Latif  A-Qadir & Salam D. Al-Qaisi

Abstract

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the release of Calcium ions from three intracanal medicaments [Ca(OH)2 , White Proroot MTA , Biodentine], and to measure the PH of these three materials.
Materials and Methods: Forty-two single rooted permanent teeth were prepared using crown down technique with Protaper rotary files to a master apical file size 40. The canals were irrigated by using 2 ml 5.25% NaOCl for 60 seconds after each instrument change, final irrigation of canals using 5 ml of 17% EDTA for 3 minutes and 5 ml of 5.25% NaOCl for 60 seconds and finally 10 ml of saline solution. The canals were dried and the intracanal medicaments were applied according to manufacturer instruction after setting of materials, both apical and coronal openings were sealed by Cavit and a layer of Epoxy resin on it. Each root was immersed in 30 ml of deionized water. The digital pH meter was used for measuring the pH values for each root 10 times per each studied period (1, 2, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60) days; The Calcium ions release measurements were taken for each studied periods using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer device. The results were analyzed statistically using ANOVA (F test), a p-value < 0.05 was considered as a significant.
Results: The pH values for Ca (OH)2 and PMTA groups were gradually increased and need more time for increasing than the Biodentine. The pH values for Biodentine were the highest at the first day then decreased in the 2nd and 7th days, then increased over time until sixty days. The calcium ions release values were gradually increase for three medicament and its values were highest for Biodentine followed by Ca(OH)2 and finally PMTA. The differences between groups were statistically highly significant. 
Conclusions: Biodentine exhibited highest mean values in the calcium ions release and pH measurements than other groups and PMTA showed lowest mean values in the calcium ion release and pH measurement.
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6- Evaluation of some intracanal irrigants on push-out bond strength and mode of failure of resin and non resin cements to root canal dentin (in vitro 
     comparative study)
     Rawa O. Ibrahim & Salam D. Al-Qaisi

Abstract

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of five intracanal irrigants [distilled water, NaOCl, NaOCl + EDTA, ozonated water and NaOCl + ozonated water] on push-out bond strength of (zinc phosphate cement and Calibra® esthetic resin cement) and to determine the mode of failure. 
Materials and methods: Seventy extracted single straight rooted teeth were selected. The crowns were sectioned at cemento-enamel junction. The sectioned roots were embedded vertically in clear acrylic resin. The root canals were prepared with K-files and Gates Glidden drills using step-back technique then the specimens were randomly assigned to five main groups according to the types of irrigant used and each main group were divided in to two subgroups and filled with zinc phosphate cement and Calibra® esthetic resin cement. The samples were sectioned horizontally to provide 4 millimeter dentin disc from coronal third of the roots. Each sectioned specimen was tested by using computerized universal testing machine. Finally each de-bonded specimens was examined under stereomicroscope to determine the mode of failure. 
Results: Two-way ANOVA  tests showed that there was statistical significance difference between the two type of cement used in this study, also there was statistical significance difference between the types of irrigant; while the interaction between  types of cement with types of irrigant was not statistically  significant. Considering the dentine surface treatment, Paired T-test showed that irrigation with 5.25% NaOCl produce statistically significant reduction in bond strength to root canal dentin in comparison to control group, while irrigation with distilled water, 5.25 NaOCl plus 17% EDTA, 5.25% NaOCl plus 5gm/L ozonated water, 5gm/L ozonated water alone had no statistical significant affect on bond strength to root canal dentin. Comparing the cements, zinc Phosphate cement showed higher bond strength in comparison to Calibra® esthetic resin cement.
Conclusions: NaOCl have negative effect on bond strength to root canal dentin, while distilled water, NaOCl plus EDTA, ozonated water alone or after NaOCl had no effect. Zinc phosphate cement had higher bond strength than Calibra® esthetic resin cement. The adhesive and mixed failures were higher than the cohesive failure for all groups in general.
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7- Conservation of dentin thickness in the root canals orifice following two preparation techniques
     Ranjdar Mahmood Talabani , Shawbo Muhamad Ahmad & Arass Jalal Noori

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of dentine removed after canal preparation using ProTaper (PT) and Greater Taper (GT) rotary instruments.
Materials and methods: Twenty extracted human teeth with single roots were selected and sectioned at the level of CEJ. The roots were distributed in two groups (n= 20) using stratified randomization, and prepared under simulated clinical conditions with ProTaper (PT) and Greater Taper (GT) rotary NiTi system. The pre- and post-preparation photographs were traced and superimposed, dentin thickness was measured at the levels of canal periphery, canal area, tooth area, mesial dentin thickness, distal dentin thickness, buccal dentin thickness and lingual dentin thickness both before and after preparation.
Results: The thickness of removed dentin was significantly different between the two preparation techniques (p<0.01) at the level of both tooth and canal area with more conservation for GT system while ProTaper system more conservative at buccolingual width than mesiodistal width, and GT system was more conservative at mesiodistal dimension than buccolingual dimension.
Conclusion: GT rotary instrumentation prepares root canals has greater conservation of dentine structure on the overall dimensions of the root, while the ProTaper system is more conservative at buccolingual dimension.
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8- The prevalence and etiology of maxillary midline diastema among orthodontic patients attending Shorsh Dental Clinic in Sulaimani City
      Darwn Saeed Abdulateef,  Azheen Jamil Ali & Nasih Fatih Othman

Abstract

Objectives: The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of MMD among Shorish dental clinic`s patients seeking orthodontic treatment and to find the factors associated with this anomaly.
Materials and Methods: During 6 months, 507 patients with age (13 – 40) years old attending Shorish Dental Clinic, seeking orthodontic treatment were screened to find the prevalence and etiology of MMD.
Result: The MMD was present in 110 patients (21.7%). The frequency of MMD was the same in males and females. It is highest in the young age group and lowest in the older age group (29% vs. 4%).
Conclusion: The most frequent factor among the observed etiological factors was oral unhealthy habit which was found in 40% of MMD patients and 8.7% of all cases.
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9- Angle’s classification of first molar occlusion among patients attending a private orthodontic clinic in Sulaimani City
      Anwar Ahmad Amin, Awder Nuree Arf & Zhwan Jamal Rashid

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study were to find the prevalence of Angle’s classification and distribution of malocclusion amongst patients attending a private orthodontic clinic in Sulaimani City.
Method: Pre-treatment orthodontic records of 171 patients of both genders and different age groups fulfilled selection criteria were obtained for the study. The data from case sheets and dental casts were analyzed to determine the prevalence of angles class I, class II, and class III malocclusion.
Results: Malocclusion was found to be higher in females than males. Patient’s malocclusions were as follow: 56 (33%) Class I, 83 (48%) Class II, and 32 (19%) Class III. Patients of 12-17 years age group were found to be  more interested in orthodontic treatment than other age groups.
Conclusions: Class II malocclusion created almost half of the patients seeking orthodontic treatment in private clinic in Sulaimani City. Furthermore majority of orthodontic cases were young patients (12-17 age group) with females showing a higher percentage than males.
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10- A retrospective panoramic study for alveolar bone loss among young adults in Sulaimani City, Iraq
      Faraedon M. Zardawia, Alaa N. Aboud & Dler A. Khursheed

Abstract

Objective: to determine the prevalence of alveolar bone crest loss among a selected sample of archival orthopantomography (OPG) in relation to number of sites affected and gender in Sulaimani City.
Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted with an inclusive period running from March to December 2007 to determine the prevalence of alveolar bone loss among 1072 subjects on panoramic radiographs. Panoramic images were sampled at the radiological archive of Dental School Hospital–University of Sulaimani for a selected age class ranged from 17 to 30 years. Bone loss was estimated by measuring the distance from cementoenamel junction (CEJ) minus 2 mm (physiologic high of interseptal alveolar crest) to the crest of the alveolar bone at sites with reduced normal level of interseptal bone. Total bone loss was divided into two groups according to number of sites affected; group one (1-3) sites showing bone loss per panoramic radiograph, and group 2 showing bone loss at more than 3 sites. Samples were also divided into two age groups; group one from 17 to 23 years and group two from 24 to 30 years. Moreover, bone loss was determined according to gender into male and female and number of sites affected for each gender. 
Results: results showed that 347 images – 30.2% of the total images showed bone loss at one site or more. 14.6% of the images revealed bone loss at 1-3 sites, whereas, 15.6% demonstrated bone loss at more than 3 sites. Percentage of bone loss was significantly higher (P=0.001) among group two (24-30 years old group) than group one (17-23 years old group) 38% against 25% respectively. Female’s radiographs recorded a non-significantly higher (P>0.05) bone loss than male’s radiographs 31.7% against 28.7% respectively.   
Conclusion: prevalence of bone loss among young adults in Sulaimani City was relatively high compared to other published reports. There was a predilection for female. Bone loss was more prevalent at (24-30 years old group) compared to (17-23 years old group).
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