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Sulaimani Dental Journal: Vol 2 Issue 2: December, 2015.

Cover pages to Table of Content  - Volume 2, Issue 2 2015  PDF


1- Height, weight and the number of erupted permanent teeth among 6-16 years old children in Sulaimani City
     Arass Jalal Noori, Shokhan Ahmad Hussein & Dilsoz Abdul Ali

Abstract

Objectives: This study was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of gender, weight, and height on number of permanent teeth emerged among 6-16 years age group children in Sulaimani city.
Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out among randomly selected primary school in Sulaimani city including an oral clinical examination, and weight and height measurements. All measurements were carried out following standardized guidelines. Missing teeth due to extraction were counted as erupted and other cases were excluded from the study if missing of teeth were not approved to be due to tooth extraction.
Results: A total of 1125 children aged 6-16 years were recruited for the study. The overall mean age of the children was 10.7 ± 2.8 years (boys, 10.6 ± 2.6; girls, 10.9 ± 3.0). Females showed higher number of erupted teeth than males by an average of about 1.4 teeth/ child and the total number of erupted teeth was 18.2 teeth/ child in the total sample. Partial correlation coefficient of total numbers of erupted teeth was positively significant with weight in both males and females and was significant with height among females only. The partial correlation results of the eruption (presence) of individual teeth with height and weight were mixed as; all incisor teeth showed no significant relation, but the teeth number 17, 15, 13, and 47 showed positive significant correlation with height and weight.
Conclusions: The mean total number of erupted teeth per child increased with age and the mean total number of erupted teeth was higher in females than males. The influence of weight on the number of erupted teeth was obvious among both males and females, while the height of the child showed a significant influence on the number of erupted teeth only among females. Furthermore, the influences of height and weight on the eruption of individual teeth were inconclusive.


2- Fluoride concentration of well water in different areas of Sulaimani province
     Dler Ali Khursheed, Darwn Saeed Abdulateef, Ara Omer Fatah & Aras Maruf Rauf

Abstract

Objectives: To determine the amount of fluoride concentration in well water of different places in Sulaimani province, Iraq.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-two samples of well water were taken from different areas in Sulaimani Province. The areas are different from the geographical point of view. The water samples were directly taken from the wells pumps. Each sample was filtered through a 0.45 µm and 47 mm diameter membrane filter before analyzing by ion chromatography machine.  The machine had been standardized for fluoride ion by using Dionex seven anion standard to allow the machine is reading fluoride ions within these certain concentrations. Anion identification is based on the comparison of analyte signal peak retention times relative to those of known standards.  Quantitation is accomplished by measuring the peak area and comparing it to a calibration curve generated from known standards.
Results: All the 22 samples had shown the very low amount of fluoride concentration. The maximum concentration was 0.157 mg/l, and the minimum concentration was zero mg/l.
Conclusion: The fluoride ions in the samples taken from different sources of well water in Sulaimani province had shown concentrations that could not provide any benefits for the purpose of caries prevention.

3- Evaluation of the antimicrobial effects of ozonated water on the sanitization of endodontic files contaminated with C. Albicans
     Niaz H. Ghareeb H. Saeed, Chiman H. Fattah, Kawa A. M. Amin & Shakhawan Kadir Kadir

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 0.5 ppm ozonated water in the elimination of Candida albicans, from endodontic files. 
Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 20 K-files, 21 mm long and of size 25. Of these, five files were taken as a control group, and the remaining 15 files were divided into three groups of 5 files each and they were tested for the efficacy of sanitization with different disinfecting material: sodium hypochlorite alone, sodium hypochlorite followed by ozonated water and ozonated water alone. From the prepared sample of C.albicans, the 20 K-files were contaminated.
Results: Antimicrobial effectiveness was evaluated by the reduction of microbial counts. Incomplete disinfection of ozonated water up to 20% was observed (%80 sterilization). 
Conclusions: The results showed that disinfecting and exposing to ozonated water alone cannot give complete sterilization. Sodium hypochlorite followed by ozonated water can be used as an alternative method for using ozonated water alone.

4- Influence of prefabricated post screw head design on the stress pattern in the core and crown. Finite element stress analysis study
      Abdulsalam R Al-Zahawi

Abstract

Objectives: This study evaluated the influence of dental post head design on the stress distribution in the core and crown structure as an in vitro study.
Materials and Methods: 3D finite element model prepared for three different stainless steel post head designs (rectangular with sharp line angle (A), rectangular with fillet line angle (B), and post with round head (C), inserted in single rooted tooth and retained the composite core and zircon crown.  Two configurations of load (100) Newten were applied vertically (V) and lateral oblique (LO) on the occlusal surface of the crown. The results were analyzed and the maximum Von Mises stress option of the stress analysis, at the core and crown parts were compared.
Results: The results shown that the Maximum Von Mises stresses value in design A (45.58, 186.16) MPa, design B (44.48, 183.71) MPa and design C (29.31, 12984) under V load and LO load in sequence.  The maximum Von Mises stress location was at the cervical margin of the crown,  in design A and B, while located at the top surface of the core for design C under both load configurations. The stresses were concentrated at the top surface of the core in designs A and B, whereas, the stress pattern distributed uniformly in the core structure for design C.
Conclusions: The round post screw head design produces more benign stress distribution under different occlusal load compared with rectangular shape particularly at the crown margin.

5- A correlation between human ABO phenotypes and periodontal status
      Harem J. Hama Rashed & Faraedon M. Zardawi

Abstract

Objectives: To investigate the frequency of periodontal diseases among ABO blood groups and the Rh factors.
Materials and Methods: the double-blind cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 systemically healthy subjects (90) males and (110) females, were examined at the Department of Periodontics – School of Dentistry – University of Sulaimani. The sample was divided into 3 groups – control (healthy) group, gingivitis group and periodontitis group according to plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss, then participants examined for their blood phenotypes and a correlation among the obtained data was formulated using SPSS 17.0 software.
Results: Results of this study revealed high incidence of periodontitis and gingivitis among (O) and (A) group subjects compared to (B) and (AB) subjects, whereas no significant relation was detected between Rhesus (Rh) factors and periodontal lesions. 
Conclusions: A positive correlation was detected between (A) and (O) blood groups and frequency of periodontal lesions, this correlation could be employed as a risk marker for early detection of susceptible subjects to periodontitis.

6- Effect of fixed orthodontic appliance on some factors and elements of saliva
     Zena Hekmat Altaee, Muhammad Hammad Jasim Al-Ajeely & Yasir Mufeed Abdulateef

Abstract

Objectives: to determine the prevalence, severity and extension of gingival recession in an adult population in Sulaimani city – Iraq.
Materials and Methods: 627 subjects, males and females were examined at Shorsh teaching hospital - dental center in Sulaimani city to determine the prevalence, severity and extension of gingival recession. The sample was divided into four age groups, group 1 (20 to 29 years) 232 patients, group 2 (30 to 39 years) 223 patients, group 3 (40 to 49 years) 128 patients and group 4 (above 50 years) 44 patients. A calibrated periodontal probe marked up to 15 mm was employed for measuring the amount of gingival recession from cementoenamel junction to the gingival margin on four surfaces of each tooth - mesial, buccal, distal and lingual. Miller’s classification was used to evaluate the severity of the recession.
Results: In this study a total of 249 subjects out of 627 recorded gingival recession. Whereas, 1453 teeth out of 6776 adding up to 2340 sites displayed (≥1 mm) gingival recession. Furthermore, the majority of older age group (≥ 50 years) sample revealed gingival recession (93.2%). Statistically gingival recession among male subjects were non-significantly higher than female subjects 46% against 34.5% respectively, whereas females recorded higher number of teeth and sites affected by gingival recession than males (823 teeth against 630 teeth and 1277 sites against 1063 sites). According to Miller’s classification, class one recession was most prevalent (55%) followed by class III (38.2%). According to age, Class I recessions decreased as age increased, however, Class III and Class IV recessions showed an increasing status as age increased. According to tooth type, mandibular central and lateral incisors showed the highest percentages of gingival recession (23.6% and 19.4%) respectively.
Conclusion: Prevalence of the gingival recession was high among the population examined in this study with a predilection for males. Gingival recession was more prevalent in higher age groups. Furthermore, mandibular central and lateral incisors were the most frequent teeth revealing recession among the total dentition.

7- Age changes in the position of mandibular foramen related to the occlusal plane and other mandibular parameters on orthopantomograms among 7-11 years old ages among Sulaimani children
     Dler Abdulrahman Mohammed

Abstract

Objectives: Main objective of this study was to estimate gender and age changes in the position of MF in relation to the occlusal plane among boys and girls aged 7 to 11 years old, also to record the distance between MF with each of the anterior border of ramus (AB), posterior border of ramus (PB), and the inferior border of ramus (IB) near the mandibular angle. Another aim was to find a correlation between the gonial angle (GA) and other mandibular ramus parameters.
Materials and Methods: 200 normal panoramic radiographs belong to 100 boys and 100 girls between 7-11 years old age, were included in this study. Radiographs collected from different sources. Seven points; four planes; four lines; and one angle were traced on the right side of the radiographs. AutoCAD and Photoshop programs were used to measure distances from MF to each of the occlusal planes; AB; PB, and IB. also GA were measured. These measuring were assessed and compared in different age and sex groups to determine the relative position of MF to the occlusal plane and other parameters.
Results: These results showed statistically significant increasing in all parameters in relation to the aging process and both sexes (P value<0.5). Boys had higher measurements than girls in all parameters except for the distance between MF and occlusal plane. GA showed a negative correlation with aging in both sexes.
Conclusions: It is concluded that IANB anesthesia is well done if the dental needle inserted below and above the occlusal plane in 7-9 and 10-11 years old boys respectively. While it should be inserted below and above the occlusal plane in 7-8 and 9-11 years old girls respectively. GA has a negative correlation with the occlusal plane and other mandibular parameters (P value<0.5). The relation between MF distance to other mandibular parameters and with advancing age in both sexes were statistically significant (P value<0.5).

8- The selection of maxillary anterior teeth width in relation to facial measurements 
      Faraidoon Aziz Miran & Shayda Rasheed Muhamad

Abstract

Objectives: This clinical study was carried out to determine the relationships between maxillary anterior teeth width [canine arc distance, central incisor width], and certain horizontal facial parameters which include: [(Interzygomatic, inner and outer canthus and interpupillary) distances, and (interalar, mouth and philtrum of upper lip) widths], to be used as a guide to selection   of the maxillary anterior teeth width.
Materials and Methods: The facial measurements were taken directly from (60) under-graduate students in age range (19-24) years old by using an electronic digital vernier caliper. While canine arc distance and central incisor width were measured indirectly on the casts made from impressions of the selected subjects using flexible millimeter ruler. The collected data were analyzed and correlated using statistical package SPSS version 20.
Results: The mean value of all the parameters measured were significantly higher in males than female, for male just a significant correlation was found between canine arc distance and mouth width, CARCD =0.994×MW, while for females significant correlation was found between canine arc distance  mouth width, inner and outer canthal distance, and interpupillary distance, but the most significance relation was with the mouth width, CARCD=1.036×MW, and central incisor width was significantly correlated with, mouth width, CIW = MW ÷6.15, CIW = MW ×0.16. 
Conclusions: This study demonstrated that certain horizontal facial parameters could be used as a guide in maxillary anterior teeth width selection to achieve an optimal esthetic result for each gender.

9- Complete edentulism and related factors among patients visiting prosthodontics department clinic of School of Dentistry - University of Sulaimani
      Kawan Salahaddin Othman, Dana Mustafa Abdulla & Kamil Karim Muhhamad

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of complete edentulism and associated factors among patients visiting prosthodontics department clinic of School of dentistry Sulaimani University, in order to plan for future oral health care provisions for the society, collecting epidemiological data on oral health particularly related to prosthodontics and its related issues.
Materials and Methods: The samples comprised 280 completely edentulous patients, who attended University of Sulaimani School of dentistry prosthodontics department clinic, patients questioner filled out which covered their age, gender, reasons for edentulousness, medical history, and presence of previous denture and the reason of not using it. The patients were divided in to four age groups; Group I (40-49) years, Group II (50-59) years, Group III (60-69) years, and Group IV 70 years and above. The relationship between the variables were investigated then evaluated.
Results: The results showed that 155 (55.4%) of the patients were males and 125 (44.6%) of the patients were females. The majority of the patients were from age group III (60-69) years, while minority of the patient were from age Group I (40-49). Tooth decay was the major cause of edentulousness (75.4%), while periodontitis constitutes only (24.65) of the cases. Among the total number of participants only (35%) of them were have systemic problems, 61.2% suffered from hypertension, 29.6% were diabetic, and only 9.2% of the patients have cardiovascular problem. Finally, the results revealed that from 280 patients 164 (58.6 %) have previous dentures, poor retention (48.2%), fracture (31.7), tooth wear (12.2%), discomfort (4.2%), and stability (3.7%); were the reason of not using these dentures.
Conclusions: An effective relationship between age, gender, tooth decay, periodontal disease, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease with edentulism is present.

10- Comparison of predominant cultivable microflora on acrylic denture base resin cured by two different techniques
      Neda AL-Kaisy, Salem Abdil- Latif Salem & Tarik Saleh AL-Zubaidy

Abstract

Objectives: To characterize the prevalence of normal microorganisms on complete upper dentures on successive weeks after insertion reaching a stable condition. Also, to find out the effect of the microwave curing system on the periodic microbiological growth on complete upper dentures and compare them with the results obtained from the water-bath curing method.
Materials and Methods: Ten healthy fully edentulous patients were selected. A comparative micro flora on acrylic resin samples cured by two ways: the water-bath curing method and microwave curing energy. The samples fixed in the fitting surface of complete upper denture. The micro flora were studied during four experimental periods starting from zero time, the time just before the insertion of new complete dentures till the 6th week of denture insertion. The data were analyzed using SPSS software with T-test, and the differences were considered statistically significant at P<0.05.
Results: Various microorganism species isolated from both samples, include streptococci, staphylococci, Gram-positive rods, Gram-negative rods and cocci.
The microwave samples appeared to support significantly more aerobic Gram-positive rods and anaerobic Gram-negative rods, but less aerobic and anaerobic streptococci, Gram-negative cocci, and aerobic staphylococci. No candida growth could be identified before and after denture insertion. In spite of oscillate population of the bacteria, it has been noted it tends to stabilize on two subjects at the 10th week.
Conclusions: It was difficult to decide which one of the either methods of curing acrylic resin is better in harboring fewer microorganisms. The number of both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms significantly increased as the period of wearing denture is prolonged. Early plaque contains different kinds of bacteria; the majority was Gram-positive rods. No candida growth was detected.

11- Modified Flap Design for Lower Third Molar Surgery: A Short Patient-based Outcome Comparative Study
       Faaiz Y. Alhamdani, Athil A.Raheem & Basma Kamal

Abstract

Objectives: to compare the influence of a newly suggest modified flap design on pain and swelling with the traditional two sided flap.
Materials and Methods: Patients were divided into two groups: conventional approach (control) group (n=42) and modified approach (experimental) group (n=41). Pain and swelling were evaluated for the first three postoperative days using 10 cm visual analogue scales. Presence of dry socket was documented in the 7th postoperative day.
Results: There was statistically significant difference on the third  postoperative day (p <0.05) in the mean pain score between the two surgical groups. The mean score of swelling in conventional group was slightly higher than the modified approach (p<0.05) in the first and the third post operative days. The incidence of dry socket in the modified approach was significantly less than conventional approach group (p <0.001).
Conclusions: The modified flap design has a relative advantage over the conventional two sided buccal approach in terms of postoperative pain, swelling and dry socket incidence.