Issues‎ > ‎vol1n1‎ > ‎


1- The use of maxillary first molar as forensic aid in racial and sexual dimorphism of Kurdish populaton in Sulaimani city

Azhar Ghanim Ahmed

College of Dentistry, University of Sulaimani



Objectives: To find out the utility of using permanent maxillary first molar as a forensic tool for sex determination,   and to compare tooth size for both side in the same sex in Kurdish people.

Materials and methods:
The study sample comprised 120 casts of Kurdish peoples (67 females and 53 males) from Sulaimani city - Iraq, with age ranging from 13-33 years. The bucco-lingual (B-L) and mesio-distal (M-D) linear measurements of the maxillary first molars were calculated using digital vernier calipers. Percentage of sexual dimorphism was calculated.

The mean values of B-L and M-D parameters were greater in males than females and greater on right side compared to with left side. The mean values of B-L parameters showed statistically significant differences between males and females with p ˂0.05.The differences in B-L and M-D parameters between the right and the left side were statistically significant in males. 
Sexual dimorphism amounted to 3.48%, 2.83% for the right and left bucco-lingual diameter respectively as compared to 1%, 0.91 % for right and left mesio-distal diameters of the maxillary first molars respectively.

The result of the study showed that the bucco-lingual diameters of permanent maxillary first molars exhibiting significant sexual dimorphism in Kurdish sample and can be used as adjunct in sex determination.

Keywords: Maxillary first molar, sexual dimorphism, forensic


1.       Gloria S and Venera B. Sexual dimorphism in permanent maxillary canines. Int  J Pharm Bio Sci . 2013; 4: 927 –32.

2.       Kaushal S, Patnaik VVG, Agnihotri G. Mandibular canines in sex determination. J Anat Soc India. 2003; 52:119-24.

3.       Khan S, Hassan G, Rafique T, Hasan N, Russell S. Mesiodistal crown dimensions of permanent teeth in Bangladeshi population. BSMMU J. 2011; 4: 81-87.

4.       Sonika V, Harshaminder K, Madhushankari G.S, Sri Kennath J.A. Sexual dimorphism in the permanent maxillary first molar: a study of the Haryana population (India). J Forensic Odontostomatol. 2011; 29:37-43.

5.       Sittiporn R, Suda R, Montip T, Peerapong S. Sex determination from teeth size in Thais. 6th Central Institute of Forensic Science Thailand (CIFS) Academic Day. September 14-15, 2011. At Muang Thong Thani.

6.       Joseph A, Harish R.K, Mohammed P, Kumar V: How reliable is sex differentiation from teeth measurements.Oral Maxillofacial path J. 2013; 4:289-92.

7.       Vodanovic M, Demo Z, Njemirovskij V, Keros J, Brkic H. Odontometrics a useful method for sex determination in an archaeological skeletal population. J. of Archaeological Sci. 2007; 34:905-13.

8.       Girija K,  Ambika M. Permanent maxillary first molars: Role in gender determination (Morphometric analysis). J. Forensic Dent Sci. 2012; 4: 101-102.

9.       Işcan MY, Kedici PS. Sexual variation in buccolingual dimensions in Turkish dentition. Forensic Sci Int. 2003; 137:160-64.

10.    Rani P, Mahima VG, Pati K . Bucco-lingual dimension of teeth- An aid in sex determination. J Forensic Dent Sci .2009; 1:88-92.

11.    Perzigian AJ. The dentition of the Indian Knoll skeletal population: odontometrics and cup number. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1976; 44:113-21.

12.    Ghose LJ, Baghdady V. Analysis of the Iraqi dentition: mesiodistal crown diameters of permanent teeth. J Dent Res.1979; 58:1047-54.

13.    Stroud JL, Buschang PH, Goaz PW. Sexual dimorphism in mesiodistal dentin and enamel thickness. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 1994; 23:169-71.

14.    Hattab FN, Al-Khateeb S, Sultan I. Mesiodistal crown diameters of permanent teeth in

Jordanians. Arch Oral Biol. 1996; 41:641-5.

15.    Rai B, Dhattarwal SK, Anand SC. Sex determination from tooth. Medico-legal update 2008; 8:3-5. 

16.    Ghodosi A, Mosharraf R, Nia FF. Sexual variation in bucco-lingual dimensions in Iranian dentition. Inter J Dental Anthropol.2008; 12:1-7. 

17.    Narang R, Manchanda A , Arora P , Kaur G. Sexual dimorphism in permanent 1st molar: a forensic tool. Indian J Comp Dent Care. 2012. 2 : 224-227. 

18.    Deo E. A dimorphic study of maxillary first molar crown dimensions of urhobos in Abraka, SouthSouthern Nigeria. J. Morphol. Sci. 2012, 29: 96-100. 

19.    Acharya BA, Mainali S. Univariate sex dimorphism in the Nepalese dentition and the use of discriminant functions in gender assessment. Forensic Sci Inter. 2007; 173:47-56. 

20.    Kalia S. Study of permanent maxillary and mandibular canines and inter-canine arch widths among males and females. Dissertation submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, and Bangalore: 2006.

21.    Zarringhalam M. A comparison on the mesiodistal width of right and left side teeth in people with normal occlusion. J Dent Med. 2004; 17:5-11.

22.    Mahmood AD. A Comparative study of tooth size and dental arch dimensions between Iraqi Arabs and Kurds with class I normal occlusion. Al– Rafidain Dent J. 2012; 12: 71-79.