Issues‎ > ‎vol2n1‎ > ‎


Study the effect of different shades and thickness on surface hardness of light cure composite restoration (A Comparative In Vitro Study)

Bassam Afram Hanna, Miwan Salahaldeen & Tavga Mustafa

College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani



Objectives: Study performed to determined the effect of cavity depth & shade of composite on surface microhardness of the restoration.

Materials and Methods:
Eighty cylindrical specimens were prepared, (Group R) 40 specimens of Nano filled composanceram, divided into four subgroups(R1,2.5 mm,A1shade / R2, 2.5mm, C2 shade / R3,4.5mm, A1shade / R4, 4.5mm, C2shade). And (Group E) 40specimens of Micro hybrid, 3G SDI, divided into four subgroups as the same as first group. After curing with visible light cure 230v/50Hz, output 470 nm, measuring the Vicker Hardness number of top and bottom surface of each specimen, then analyzed by Student t-test.

Showed highly significant in difference in relation between top and bottom surfaces for all subgroups,and also there was highly significant indifference in relation to different types of composite, while there was non-significant indifference in relation to difference in shade in case of thin thickness, while it was significant in difference in case of thick thickness of specimens.

In case of deep cavity it wise to use thinner composite increments to improve polymerization and should avoid thicker increment especially in a dark shade of composite.

Keywords: Vicker microhardness, shade, thickness composite filling


1.       Rawls RH and Upshaw EJ. Restorative resins. Phillips’science of dental material 11th Ed., Chapter 15, pp. 399-441, 2003.                    

2.       Moon HJ.  Effect of depth of cure on marginal adaptation. J Oral Rehabil, 2004; 31: 258-64.

3.       Moore BK, Platt JA, Borges G, Chu TMG and Katsilieri I.  Depth of cure of dental resin composites: ISO 4049 depth and microhardness of types of materials and shades. Oper Dent.2008; 33 (4); 408-412.

4.       Flury S, Hayoz S, Peutzfeldt A, Hüsler J and Lussi A. Depth of cure of resin composites: Is the ISO 4049 method suitable for bulk fill materials? Dent Mater. 2012; 28; 521–528.

5.       Groninger AIS,  Soares GP,  Sasaki RT,  Ambrosano GMB,  Lovadino JR and  Aguiar FHB. Microhardness of nanofilled composite resin light-cured by LED or QTH units with different times. Braz J Oral Sci. 2011; 10 (3): 189-192.  

6.       Kwon YH, Kang SI, Park JK and Kim HI. Effect of irridiation mode on polmerization of dental composites. J Biomed Mat Res. 2006; 30: 470-77.

7.       Rueggeberg FA, Caughmau WF and Curtis JW. Factor affecting cure at depths within light activated resin composite.  Am J Dent. 1993; 6(2):91-5.                             

8.       Lelaoup G, Holoet EP, Beoelman S and Devaux J. Raman Scattering Determination of the depth of cure of light activated composites. J Oral Rehabil, 2002; 29:


9.       Swartz  ML, Li Y, Phillips RW, Moore BK and Roverts TA. Effect of filler content and size on properties of composite. J Dent Res 1985; 64: 1396 –401.

10.     Han L, Okamoto A, Fukushima M and Okiji T. Enamel microcracks produced around restorations with flowable composites. Dent Mater J. 2005; 24:83-91.          

11.     Manhart J, Kunzelmann KH, Chen HY and Hickel R. Mechanical properties of new composite restorative materials. J Biomed Mater Res.2000; 53:353-61.                 12. Obici AC,  Sinhoreti MA, Sobrinho L, Góes MF and Consani S. Evaluation of depth of cure and Knoop hardness in a dental composite photo-activated using different methods. Braz Dent J. 2004; 15(3):199-203.

13.     Aguiar FH, Andrade KR, Leite Lima DA, Ambrosano GM and  Lovadino JR. Influence  of  light  curing and sample  thickness  of  microhardness  of a composite resin. Clin Cosmet Investig Dent. 2009; 6 (1):21-5.

14.     Clifford SS,Roman K, Tantbioion D and Versluis A. Shrinkage and hardness of dental composite acquired with different curing light sources.Quintessence Int.


15.     Nishimaki M, Depth of cure& hardness of indirect composite materials polymerized with two metal halide laboratory curing unites.  J Oral Sci. 2012 ;5 4(1):


16.     Vicker Hardness Number   Test  Equations  Formulas Calculator Material Science Hardness Testing,pencil haedness tester, hardness of thin film, coating inseption instrument. , 2013. 

17.     El-Nawawy M, Koraitim L, Aboueletta O and Hegazi H. Depth of cure& microhardness of Nanofilled packable and hybrid dental composite resin.American journal of biomedical engenering. 2012;2(6):241-250.

18.     Rueggeberg FA, Caughman WF, Curtis J and Davis HC. Factors affecting cure at depths within light activated resin composites. Am J Dent. 1993; 6(2):91-5.

19.     Yap AU, Soh MS and Siow KS. Effectiveness of composite cure with pulse activation and soft-start polymerization. Oper Dent. 2002; 27:44–9. 

20.     Istifan J.Effect of light curing tip distance and resin shade on microhardness of a hybrid resin composite, Dent. Res J. 2012; 9(6): 735–740.

21.     Camila Silveira de Araújo, Marcelo Thome Schein,

Cesar Henrique Zanchi, Sinval Adalberto Rodrigues, Flavio Fernando Demarco,  Composite  resin microhardness: the  influence  of light  curing  method, composite shade, and depth  of  cure.  The journal of contemporary dental practice. 2008; 9(4):43-50.

22.     Ruyter IE and Oysaed H. Conversion in different depths of ultraviolet and visible light activated composite materials. Acta Odontol Scand. 1982; 40:179–92. 

23.     Aguira FH, Lazzari CR and Lima DA, Effect of light curing tip distance and resin shade on microhardness of a hybrid resin composuite. Pesqui Odontol Bras .2005; 19:302-6.