Issues‎ > ‎vol2n1‎ > ‎

sdj-10039

The prevalence of enamel white spot lesions before and after fixed orthodontic treatment among patients attending Shorish Dental Center

**Khoshy Smko Fatehulla, **Omed Salar Hamasaeed & *Darwn Saeed Abdulateef

*College of Dentistry, University of Sulaimani

**Sulaimani Polytechnique University, Sulaimani, Iraq.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17656/sdj.10039

Abstract

Objectives: This study was done to determine the prevalence of WSLs among orthodontic patients visiting Shorish Dental Center in Sulaimani City during 4 months (1st June 2013- 30 sep 2013) requiring fixed orthodontic treatment.

Materials and Methods:
Six hundred and seventy patients (223control and 447study groups) who attended orthodontic department of Shorish Dental Center during 4 months were included in this study. The presence of white spot lesions was determined by visual examination in two groups of patients. The study group consisted of patients who did wear fixed orthodontic appliance, and the control group consisted of patients who didn’t having their braces placed on their teeth.

Results:
Out of 477 orthodontic patients, 148 cases presents WSL, and their prevalence was equal to (31%). Conclusion: The development of white spot lesion during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance was not a significant clinical problem and its prevalence didn’t affect by the age and the gender of the patients, suggesting that any preventive therapy provided appeared to be effective.

Conclusions:
Fixed orthodontic appliance was not a critical factor that contributed to the development of WSL. The age and the gender of the patient didn’t play a role in the prevalence of the WSLs.

Keywords: white spot lesion, fixed orthodontic treatment.



References:

1.       Fejerskov O, Nyvad B and Kidd EAM. Clinical and histological manifestations of dental caries. In: Fejerskov O, Kidd  EAM, editors Dental caries: the disease and its clinical management. Copenhagen, Denmark:Blackwell Munksgaard; 2003.pp.71-99. 

2.       Summitt JB, Robbins JW and Schwartz RS.

Fundamentals of Operative Dentistry: A Contemporary Approach, 3rd ed. Hanover Park, IL, Quintessence Publishing, 2006, Chapter 1,pp 2-4. 

3.       Gorelick L, Geiger AM and Gwinnet AJ. Incidence of white spot formation after bonding and banding. Am J Orthod. 1982;81:93–98. 

4.       Artun J and Brobakken BO. Prevalence of carious white spots after orthodontic treatment with multibonded appliances. Eur J Orthod. 1986; 8:229–234. 

5.       O’Reilly MM and Featherstone JDB. Demineralization and remineralization around orthodontic appliances: an in vivo study. Am J Orthod Dento facial Orthop. 1987; 92: 33–40. 

6.       Geiger  AM,  Gorelick  L,  Gwinnett  AJ and Griswold PG.  The  effect  of  a  fluoride  program  on  white  spot formation  during orthodontic treatment. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1988; 94:123–128. 

7.       Ogaard B. Prevalence of white spot lesions in 19-yearolds: a study on untreated and orthodontically treated persons 5 years after treatment. Am J Orthod Dento facial Orthop. 1989; 96:423–427. 

8.       Ogaard  B.  White  spot  lesions  during  orthodontic treatment:  mechanisms  and fluoride  preventive aspects.  Semin Orthod. 2008; 14:183–193. 

9.       O’Reilly MM and Featherstone JD. Demineralization and remineralizationaround orthodontic appliances: an

in vivo study. Am J Orthod Dento facial Orthop. 1987; 92:33–40. 

10.     Ogaard B, Rølla G, Arends J and  ten Cate JM. Orthodontic appliances and enamel demineralization. Part 1. Lesion development. Am J Orthod Dento facial Orthop. 1988; 94:68–73. 

11.     Ogaard B. Prevalence of white spot lesions in 19-yearolds: a study of untreated and orthodontically treated persons 5 years after treatment. Am J Orthod Dento facial Orthop.1989;96:423–427. 

12.     Benson  PE.  Prevention  of  Demineralization  during orthodontic  treatment  with  fluoride containing materials  or  casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium  phosphate.  In  Huang  GJ,  Richmond  S,  Vig KWL.(eds)  Evidence-Based  Orthodontics. Blackwell Publishing, Ltd 2011 p149-65. 

13.     Millet DT, Nunn JH, Welbury RR and Gordon PH. Decalcification in relation to brackets bonded with glass ionomer cement or a resin adhesive. Angle Orthod. 1999; 69:65–70. 

14.     Derks  A,  Katsaros  C,  Frencken JE,  van’t  Hof  MA and  Kuijpers-Jagtman  AM. Caries-inhibiting effect  of preventive  measures during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. A systematic review. Caries Res. 2004; 38: 413–420. 

15.     Julien KC, Buschang PH and Campbell PM. Prevalence of white spot lesion formation during orthodontic treatment. Angle Orthod. 2013 Jul; 83(4):641-7.

16.     Lovrov S, Hertrich K and Hirschfelder U. Enamel demineralization during fixed orthodontic treatment— incidence and correlation to various oral-hygiene parameters. J OrofacOrthop. 2007; 68:353–363. 

17.     Chapman J, Roberts WE, Eckert GJ, Kula  KS and Gonzalez-Cabezas C. Risk factors for incidence and severity of white spot lesions during treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010; 138:188–194. 

18.     Mizrahi E. Surface distribution of enamel opacities following orthodontic treatment. Am J Orthod. 1983; 84: 323–31. 

19.     Boersma JG, van der Veen MH, Lagerweij MD and Bokhout B. Caries prevalence measured with QLF after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances: Influencing factors. Caries Res. 2005; 39:41–47. 

20.     Nandikolla Sagarika, Sundaramoorthy Suchindran, 1SC Loganathan, and Velayutham Gopikrishna. Prevalence of white spot lesion  in  a  section  of  Indian  population undergoing  fixed  orthodontic  treatment:  An  in  vivo assessment  using  the  visual International   Caries Detection   and   Assessment   System   II   criteria.   J Conserv   Dent.   2012; 15(2):104-8.