Issues‎ > ‎SDJ, Vol.4, No.1, 2017‎ > ‎


Self-Reporting Questionnaire on Gingival Bleeding Among Dental Students at University of Sulaimani 

Shamal S. Zorab, Faraedun M. Zardawi, Dler A. Khursheed, Sarhang S. Gul

Department of Periodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq.



Objective:  Gingival bleeding during tooth brushing and eating is a clinical sign of gingivitis and periodontitis, or infrequently due to some associated systemic conditions or diseases such as vitamin C deficiency and blood diseases. Periodontal diseases are the six most prevalent conditions affecting human kind that are associated with plaque. The aims of this study were to determine self-experience gingival bleeding among dental students and their knowledge toward etiology, pathogenesis and management of gingival bleeding.

Methods: This questionnaire-based study was conducted on dental students, the questioner form included experience of gingival bleeding among students, their family experience of gingival bleeding, students’ view to address this issue by either stopping tooth brushing and/or other oral hygiene measures or by visiting a dentist to manage the problem. Furthermore, the questioner examined students’ knowledge on cause of bleeding and factors (systemic and habits) that associated with it.

Results: Three hundred students answered the questioner and the frequency of gingival bleeding were: 15.7% experienced frequent gingival bleeding, 51.6% showed rare gingival bleeding and 32.6% with no experience of gingival bleeding. More than 44% of the students answered that at least one of their family member experienced gingival bleeding. Mechanical stimuli such as tooth brushing were the cause of gingival bleeding of 66.3% participants. Gingival bleeding was also reported by eating hard food like apple (9%) and early morning gingival bleeding (5.3%). After bleeding, 16.7% visited the dentist and 19.3% of students stopped tooth brushing. Around half of the participants related gingival bleeding to the gingival disease itself, whereas, the other half related to other diseases.

Conclusions: Gingival bleeding is prevalent among dental students and their family members. Student’s knowledge of the cause of gingival bleeding was limited. Furthermore, students’ reaction to manage bleeding gingiva is controversial.

Keywords: Gingival bleeding, Dental student, Student knowledge.


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