Issues‎ > ‎vol7no2‎ > ‎


Determination of Mandibular Arch Form During Mixed Dentition Using Custom Made Template in Sulaimani Governorate

Mohammed A. Mahmood* , Aras M. Rauf** , Fadil A. Kareem** , Rukhosh H. Abdalrahim* , Wida T. Ahmed*** , Sanaa N. Omer****
*Department of Dental Basic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Sulaimani University, Sulaimani, Iraq. 
**Pedodontic, Orthodontic, and Preventive Dentistry Department, College of Dentistry, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq. 
***Halabja Dental Center, Halabja Directorate of Health, Halabja, Iraq. 
****Bekas Dental Center, Sulaimani Directorate of Health, Sulaimani, Iraq.
Submitted: December 18, 2020, Accepted: March 19, 2021, Published: June 1, 2021.


ObjectivesThe dental arch form and dimensions change continuously and systematically during human growth and development, but this decreases adulthood. During mixed dentition, changes in dental arch forms and the occlusion occur due to teeth movements and growth of the alveolar bone. Usually, changes in the mandibular arch are followed by changes in the maxillary arch. The research aimed to determine the most frequent mandibular dental arch form and its relationship with gender.          

MethodsThe mandibular arch forms of 115 schoolchildren with mixed dentition were examined using their dental casts. Adobe Photoshop© (21.0.0, 2019) program was used to construct a template from photographs of the casts and printed on transparent paper to overlay the casts. The data were collected and calculated using statistical software to determine the frequencies of different arch forms among the studied sample.      

Results: The sample was composed of 61 males (53%) and 54 females (47%). The oval arch form was the most frequent type with 70 cases (60.9%), followed by the square arch form with 38 cases (33%), and finally the tapered arch form with 7 cases (6.1%). No significant relationship was found between the arch form and the gender of the participants.  

ConclusionsOval arch form was the most predominant type of arch form of the mandible in the mixed dentition, and there was no relationship with gender.


Keywords: Mandibular arch form, Mixed dentition, Custom made template.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Full Article - PDF 


1. Carter, G.A.; McNamara, J.r. J.A. Longitudinal dental arch changes in adults. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 1998;114(1):88-99. 
2. Cassidy, K.M.; Harris, E.F.; Tolley, E.A.; Keim, R.G. Genetic influence on dental arch form in orthodontic patients. The Angle Orthod. 1998;68(5):445-54. 
3. Moyers, R.E.; van der Linden, F.P.G.M.; Riolo, M.L.; McNamara, J.A. J.r. Standards of human occlusal Development. Ann Arbor, Mich: Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan. 1976. Craniofacial Growth Series, Monograph 5. 
4. Van der Linden, F.P.G.M. Facial growth and facial orthopedics. Chicago, I11: Quintessence; 1983:245. 
5. Van der Linden, F.P.G.M. Facial growth and Facial Orthopedics. Chicago: Quintessence. 1989:148-52. 
6. Proffit WR, Fields HW, Larson B, Sarver DM. Contemporary orthodontics-e-book. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2018 Aug 6. 
7. Bishara, S.E.; Jakobsen, J.R.; Treder, J. N.; Owark, A. Arch width changes from 6 weeks to 45 years of age. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 1997;111(4):401-09. 
8. Warren, J.J.; Bishara, S.E. Comparison of dental arch measurements in the primary dentition Mandibular arch form during mixed dentition Sulaimani Dent. J. June 2021 60 between contemporary and historic samples. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 2001;119(3):211- 15. 
9. Brash, J.C. The aetiology of irregularity and malocclusion of the teeth, 2nd ed. London: Dental Board of the United Kingdom, 1956. 
10. Angle, E.H. Treatment of malocclusion of the teeth. 7th ed. Philadelphia: SS White & Co., 1907. 
11. Black, J.V. Descriptive anatomy of the human teeth. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Wilmington Dental Mfg. Co., 1984. 
12. Noroozi H, Nik TH, Saeeda R. The dental arch form revisited. Angle Orthod. 2001;71(5):386-9. 
13. Currier J.H. A computerized geometric analysis of human dental arch form. Am. J. Orthod. 1969;56(2):164-79. 
14. Saeed, H.K.; Mageet, A.O. Dental arch dimensions and form in a sudanese sample. J. Contemp. Dent. Pract. 2018;19(10):1235-41. 
15. Araújo, E.A.; Buschang, P.H. Recognizing and correcting developing malocclusions: a problem- oriented approach to Orthodontics. 2016, John Wiley & Sons. 
16. Louly, F.; Nouer, P.R.; Janson, G.; Pinzan, A. Dental arch dimensions in the mixed dentition: a study of Brazilian children from 9 to 12 years of age. J. Appl. Oral Sci. 2011;19(2):169-74. 
17. Engel, G.A. Preformed arch wires: reliability of fit. Am. J. Orthod. 1979;76(5):497-504. 
18. Bayome, M.; Sameshima, G.T.; Kim, Y.; Nojima, K.; Baek, S.H.; Kook, Y.A. Comparison of arch forms between Egyptian and North American white populations. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;139(3):e245-e252. 
19. Tiwari, A.; Garg, A.; Virang, B.; Sahu, S.; Shah, N.; Verma, N. Arch form in Orthodontics: A review. J. Applied Dent.Med. Sci. 2018;4(1):118- 27. 
20. Ferrario, V.F. Sforza, C, Miani, A. Jr., Tartaglia G. Mathematical definition of the shape of dental arches in human permanent healthy dentitions. Eur. J. Orthod. 1994;16(4):287-94. 
21. Owais, A.I.; Abu Alhaija, E.S.; Oweis, R.R.; Al- Khateeb, S.N. Maxillary and mandibular arch forms in the primary dentition stage. OHDM. 2014;13(2):330-335. 
22. Oliva, B.; Sferra, S.; Greco, A.L.; Valento, F.; Grippaudo, C. Three dimensional analysis of dental arch forms in Italian population. Prog. in Orthodontics. 2018;19(1):34. 
23. Omar, H.; Alhajrasi, M.; Felemban, N.; Hassan, A. Dental arch dimensions, form and tooth size ratio among a Saudi sample. Saudi Med. J. 2018;39(1)86-91.

Creative Commons License
 © The Authors, published by University of Sulaimani, College of Dentistry