Prevalence of oral mucosal changes in type 2 diabetic patients attending diabetes mellitus center in Sulaimani city


  • Ranj H. Ahmed Department of Oral Diagnosis, College of Dentistry, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Balkees T. Garib Kurdistan board of Medical Specialties, Sulaimani Teaching Hospital, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author



Mucosal lesions, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Dry mouth, Gingivitis, Glycemic control


Objective: Find the prevalence of possible changes seen in the oral mucosa of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

Methods: Three hundred type 2 DM patients included in this study after taking their medical history and glycemic control level. Patients were asked for symptoms of dry mouth, burning sensation, pain and paresthesia and they were subjected to full oral mucosal examination. 

Results: Most patients had one or more subjective oral complain (83%). The predominant symptom was the feeling of dry mouth (80%) with no sex difference (P= 0.772). The mucosal pain reported in (12.7%) and significantly in males (P= 0.000). Gingival redness reported in (33.3%) and paresthesia in (8%). Nine (3%) patients had white buccal patches and six of them revealed lichenoid drug reaction. Dry mouth and oral burning sensation were shown to be unrelated to the glycemic control. Gingival redness was the most common lesion and correlated with poor glycemic control. Tongue was the second most commonly affected site in both sexes; however, the type of changes was sex and age-dependent.  Denture stomatitis was seen in 4% and more frequent in females and in old age patients but did not relate to glycemic status. Lichenoid drug reaction was more prevalent among patients with poor glycemic control (6.3%) and who were above 50 years old. Buccal mucosal white patches were related to the glycemic control (P = 0.014).

Conclusions: Dry mouth was the most common complaints of a diabetic patient in all levels of glycemic control. Gingival redness was frequent in diabetic patients and correlated with poor glycemic control. Buccal white patches were more prevalent in patients with poor glycemic control and who were above 50 years old.


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How to Cite

Prevalence of oral mucosal changes in type 2 diabetic patients attending diabetes mellitus center in Sulaimani city. (2018). Sulaimani Dental Journal, 5(1), 7.

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