Differences in Periodontal Parameters, Serum Vitamin D, Calcium, Phosphorus, Alkaline Phosphatase and C-Reactive Protein Between Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women with Periodontitis


  • Parez S. Khalid Periodontics Department, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Chenar A. Mohammad Periodontics Department, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author




Calcium, Perimenopause, Periodontitis, Postmenopause, Vitamin D


Objective: The study aimed to evaluate and compare the differences in periodontal and biochemical parameters between perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with periodontitis. 

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 women with chronic periodontitis, aged 40-60 years, divided into 50 perimenopausal and 50 postmenopausal groups. Periodontal parameters (plaque index PI, gingival index GI, gingival bleeding index GBI, simplified debris index DI-S, simplified calculus index CI-S, simplified oral hygiene index OHI-S, clinical attachment loss CAL, and pocket depth PD) and blood samples were collected to estimate vitamin D, calcium Ca, phosphorous P, alkaline phosphatase ALP and C-reactive protein CRP.     

Results: The mean values of clinical periodontal parameters were significantly higher in the postmenopausal group as compared to the perimenopausal group (P<0.05), except for CI-S (P>0.05). For the biochemical parameters, the mean serum level of AlP, Ca, and P were within the normal reference ranges, with non-significant differences reported between both groups regarding ALP and P (P>0.05). While serum Vit.D level was more significantly reduced in the postmenopausal group (P<0.05), and CRP levels were increased in both groups, but with non-significant differences (P>0.05).   

Conclusions: Postmenopause could more significantly affect the progression & severity of periodontal disease and vitamin D deficiency than peri menopause due to reducing circulating estrogen level.


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How to Cite

Differences in Periodontal Parameters, Serum Vitamin D, Calcium, Phosphorus, Alkaline Phosphatase and C-Reactive Protein Between Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women with Periodontitis. (2022). Sulaimani Dental Journal, 9(2), 9. https://doi.org/10.17656/sdj.10156